VOILA CHEFGLOSSARY

VOILA CHEF divider
A
Pressing (abaisser)
Roll out a piece of dough to a desired thickness and size
Maturing
The process of maturing cheese, usually in a cellar. It is during the maturing process that the cheese acquires its final taste, texture and appearance.
Anisakis
Parasite living in the digestive tract of fish and marine mammals. Ingesting raw fish can cause an infection in human.
PDO
Protected Designation of Origin. Label protecting local know-how by guaranteeing that the products have been transformed and elaborated in a precise geographical area and according to codified processes.
Mix
Mixture of several ingredients used in the composition of a recipe
Final Proof
The second stage of yeast fermentation, which starts after shaping and stops when the dough is baked. This fermentation gives volume to the dough through the creation of carbon dioxide.
Trimming
Cutting the parts of a dough that protrude from a mold
B
Bain-marie
Container filled with cold or hot water into which another container is placed to cool or heat it
Bard
A strip of animal fat used to wrap or cover food to improve its taste and protect it during the cooking process, thus preventing it from drying out and allowing to stay moist. 
Bassinage
Roll out a piece of dough to a desired thickness and size
Baumé
A degree of measurement is a unit of measurement to gauge the level of concentration: for example, it allows to evaluate the level of sugar concentration
Softened butter
Softened butter that has the consistency of a cream
Blanching (blanchir)
Heat treatment of food by brief exposure to a heat source (immersion in water, steam)
Rolling
Working a dough into a ball shape
c
Caudalie
Persistence of the wine in the mouth. 1 caudalie = 1 second of persistence of the wine in the mouth.
Cholorophyll
Broth or powder made from herbs or salads rich in chlorophyll (green pigment naturally present in plants and responsible for photosynthesis)
Clarifying
To make a cloudy substance clear: clarifying butter consist of melting it in a bain-marie in order to eliminate the whey
Seam
The area where the folds of the dough meet while layering or shaping the dough
Crushing
Grinding coarsely
Coral
A reddish-orange part present in some female crustaceans (these are actually eggs being formed), or in scallops. The coral is granular and rich in protein.
String
Bubble path formed by the effervescence of champagne
Scraper
A plastic and flexible spatula, without a handle, rounded on one side and square on the other
Scraping
Scraping the bottom of a container with a scraper
Cooked cheeses
Cheese whose curd has been heated to more than 50° C to tighten the grains
Bloomy-rind cheeses
Cheeses which rind is covered with a white downy mold (the "flower"). This is due to its seeding by a fungus just before maturing.
Washed-rinds cheeses
Cheeses which rind that has been washed or brushed during the maturation process to promote its development and enhance its taste.
Cheeses which rind that has been washed or brushed during the maturation process to promote its development and enhance its taste.
Body
Elasticity and resistance of a dough after kneading, linked to the quantity and quality of the gluten present in the flour
Boiling
Cooking until the mixture coats the spatula evenly
d
Drying out
Evaporating the moisture from a preparation by heating it
Cutting
Cutting out a piece of dough with a knife or a cookie cutter
Diluting
Adding a liquid to a mixture to dilute it
Rest period
The stage between weighing and shaping, during which the dough pieces that have already been shaped into balls are allowed to rest in order to reduce their strength
Plating
Arranging a slice of cake on a plate in an aesthetic way; Placing a pastry on a plate with a piping bag fitted with a tip
Duja
A mixture of confectioner's sugar and dried fruit from Italy, used to make gianduja
E
Trimming (Ebarber)
To remove the excess dough from the edges of a mold in order to ensure smooth edges
Peeling (écussonner)
Remove the rigid scales from a green asparagus
Coating
The act of coating a food with liquid or powder
Enzyme
Protein responsible for certain chemical reactions
Hulling (équeuter)
Removing the stem from a fruit or vegetable
f
Shaping
Shaping a dough into a particular shape
Dusting
Sprinkling flour on a dough, work surface or mould to prevent it from sticking
Lactic ferments
Bacteria used to transform certain foods by fermentation (yogurt, cheese, cabbage...)
Bacteria used to transform certain foods by fermentation (yogurt, cheese, cabbage...)
Filming in contact
Covering a preparation with cling film to protect it from the ambient air (oxidation, bacteria)
Fleurer (dusting lightly)
Sprinkle a very thin layer of flour on a dough, a work surface or a mold in order to prevent certain products from sticking
Aerating (foisonner)
Whipping a preparation to incorporate air and increase its volume
White base
Broth made from poultry and/or veal, and vegetables and used to flavor preparations
Fraiser 
Crushing a dough in order to smooth it while avoiding to give it body
g
Garnishing
Filling a preparation with a cream
Iced Water
Round-bottomed mixing bowl filled with ice water; it is used to stop the cooking process by immersing food in the water for a few moments
Glazing
Covering with a glaze
Gluten
Insoluble protein contained in the grain of certain cereals (wheat, oats, rye, barley, kamut, spelt)
Scoring bread (grigne)
Scarification done with a blade on a dough before it proofs and it is baked, allowing a point of weakness and an opening while the gas expands within the dough
i
Inclusion
Mixture of ingredients to be incorporated directly into a dough
Adding
Adding a product to a mix
Glycemic Index
Criterion for classifying carbohydrate-containing foods, which translates their ability to raise blood sugar levels following their ingestion
l
Raw milk
Raw milk, unprocessed
Pasteurized milk
Milk heated between 60° C and 100° C and then cooled rapidly. This process ensures a better conservation because it eliminates bacteria.
Thermized milk
Milk heated between 57° C and 68° C to kill bacteria while preserving the taste of raw milk.
Glazing (laquer)
Using a brush, coating a food with a sauce or oil to make it shiny
Binding
Giving some consistency to a cream by incorporating another product
m
Drumstick
First segment of the poultry wing
Trimming a bone
To remove the end of a bone by removing flesh in order to embellish the presentation of a meat
Brown (marquer)
Start cooking a dish over high heat to brown it
Crystallizing
Crystallizing the cooked sugar
Membrillo
Spanish recipe for quince paste
Mirin
Mild and sweet sake, usually with a lesser alcohol content than traditional sake; mainly used and eaten as a seasoning
Whipping
Whisking a preparation to make it lighter and more voluminous
Molding
Chocolate piece made from a mold with melted tempered chocolate
n
Coating
Covering a preparation with a topping or glaze
Nori
Edible Japanese seaweed, usually found wrapped around maki rolls
o
Sealing (obturer)
Sealing a cavity with a preparation
Okara
Seed or dried fruit residue obtained during the production of milk from these seeds or dried fruit and filtration
p
Panade
Dough obtained before the eggs are incorporated into the choux pastry
Trimming
Cutting the ends for a certain presentation or use
Trimmings
Extra food, dough
Passerillé
Grapes naturally dried on the vine to increase their sugar concentration
Soft cheese
Uncooked, unpressed cheese with a smooth texture
Pressed cheese
Cheeses with rapid coagulation, from which a lot of moisture has been removed by pressing it in order to force the draining process. As a result, they often have a long shelf life.
Pâton (puff pastry portion)
Piece of dough
Kneading
Mixing, pressing a dough in order to obtain a homogeneous result
Docking
Pricking many small holes in a piece of dough
Poaching (cooking)
Cooking in water brought to a simmer, without ever bringing to the boil (between 70° C and 80° C). You can poach oysters, fruits...
Cream powder
Thickener made of starch or cornstarch and gelatin. It allows to achieve homogeneous and compact preparations, furthermore, it yields a smoother and creamier texture than when traditional flour is used.
First Proof
The first stage of yeast fermentation, during which the development of aromas and the production of carbon dioxide start in the dough. The dough also becomes more elastic at the end of the proofing process. The "pointage" starts after the kneading and precedes the shaping.
Rennet
Coagulant found in certain ruminants and used to accelerate the cheese coagulation process
r
Folding
Folding the yeast dough after the first proof in order to eliminate some of the gas and to give it strength by tightening the gluten network
Reduce
To concentrate the flavors of a liquid preparation by heating it to evaporate its water content
Gluten network
Protein network formed by gluten chains giving elasticity to the dough and allowing it to retain fermentation gases in the presence of yeast
Ribbon
The state of a preparation that has become thick enough to flow slowly and continuously like a ribbon
s
Sabler
Rubbing the butter and the dry ingredients of a dough to obtain a sandy texture
Sashimi
Japanese culinary specialty made of thin slices of raw fish
Stiffening
Strengthen the hold of a preparation by whisking more rapidly at the end of the mixing stage
Socca
Thin galette from Nice made from chickpea flour, baked and toasted in a wood-fired oven
Juice
Liquid extracted from an animal or vegetable-based food. For meat, roasting or pan-frying releases juices, which can be deglazed to make a sauce. In the case of fruits and vegetables, it is necessary to squeeze them or use a juice extractor.
Sweat (suer)
Subjecting a food to gentle heat to bring out its vegetation water
Supreme
Poultry cut consisting of the breas, the wing and drum, with the skin
t
Sifting
Passing a powder through a sieve to remove impurities and retain large particles
Tangzhong
Japanese starch recipe
Tanin
Plant-derived molecule. In wine, it comes from the grapes and the wood of the barrels. It brings flavor to the wine, as well as an astringent sensation (raspy and drying) in the mouth.
Tempering
(or tablage)
Working the chocolate according to a defined temperature curve (depending on the chocolate) in order to obtain a chocolate that will have a hard, smooth and shiny texture when cooling
Roasting
Toasting (dried fruit, coffee or chocolate beans) to develop the flavors
Folding (tourer)
Folding a laminated dough or a puff pastry dough after having rolled it out to obtain successive layers of dough and butter
Trimoline
Also called "invert sugar". It is a sugar generally used by professionals to extend the shelf life and preserve the softness of their products. Its sweetening power is superior to that of sucrose. It can be replaced by honey.
Triple-cream (cheese)
Cheese with a high fat content
Churn (turbiner)
Churning an ice cream or sorbet mixture, until it is iced and has acquired the desired texture
U
Umami
"Tasty" in Japanese. It is the fifth flavor. Presumably from the presence of glutamic acid in food.
z
Zesting
Removing the coloured skin from citrus fruits